Immigrant Grandmother with Grandchildren
This 1944 photo shows an immigrant Italian
grandmother surrounded by her American born grandchildren. They would
call her "nona" an Italian term of endearment for grandmother. Grandfather would be called "nono.
Similarly, grandchildren of Polish immigrants would call their grandmothers "babcia"
and their grandfathers "dziadek," respectively.
Although the children of the immigrants were often bilingual, grandchildren were usually not fluent in the native language of their grandparents.
Photo: courtesy Janet Arduini Toldi collection.